Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe is an organisation funded by the European oil industry to monitor the health, safety and environmental performance of the oil refining industry. Established in 1963 by a small group of companies, it now includes most EU oil companies. Its research focus has gradually expanded in line with societal concerns over the same issues. CONCAWE’s studies cover such areas as fuel quality and emissions, air quality, water quality, soil contamination, waste, occupational health and safety, petroleum product stewardship and cross-country pipeline performance.